ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परन्तप |
कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणै: || 41||
brāhmaṇa-kṣhatriya-viśhāṁ śhūdrāṇāṁ cha parantapa
karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāva-prabhavair guṇaiḥ
brāhmaṇa—of the priestly class; kṣhatriya—the warrior and administrative class; viśhām—the mercantile and farming class; śhūdrāṇām—of the worker class; cha—and; parantapa—Arjun, subduer of the enemies; karmāṇi—duties; pravibhaktāni—distributed; svabhāva-prabhavaiḥ-guṇaiḥ—work based on one’s nature and guṇas
O Arjuna! works for the different castes (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras) are variously determined according to their nature born of Prakriti.
In the Fourth Discourse (13th verse), the Lord already declared that the differentiation of the castes is determined by the difference in the nature of men (chaturvarnyam maya sriahtam gunakarma vibhagasah). Here again, the Lord states that the difference among the castes is due to qualities differently exhibited according to their nature. So, the accident of birth is not the real criterion to fix the special gradation of the caste system. It shows that caste is no bar for anyone who aspires for Self-realisation. Though the birth is apparently in the lower castes, man can ascend to great spiritual heights by the purity of his character and conducts. The Gita thus throws open the gates of Brahmajnana to all people who are qualified for it by virtue of their inherent predispositions and acquired merit. The accident of birth is of very little significance.
Question: How are the four castes formed?
Answer: By their qualities.
Question: How are the duties of each determined?
Answer: By the tendencies with which people are born.
Question: Is the caste determined by birth?
Answer: No, It is determined by their nature.
Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18 🔻 (78 Verses)