स यः कामयते महत्प्राप्नुयामिति, उदगयन आपूर्यमाणपक्शस्य पुण्याहे द्वादशाहमुपसद्व्रती भूत्वौदुम्बरे कंसे चमसे वा सर्वौषधं फलानीति संभृत्य परिसमुह्य परिलिप्याग्निमुपसमाधाय परिस्तीर्यावृताऽऽज्यं संस्कृत्य पुंसा नक्शत्रेण मन्थं संनीय जुहोति ।
यावन्तो देवास्त्वयि जातवेदस्तिर्यञ्चो घ्नन्ति पुरुषस्य कामान्,
तेभ्योऽहं भागधेयं जुहोमि, ते मा तृप्ताः सर्वैः कामैस्तर्पयन्तु—स्वाहा ।
या तिरश्ची निपद्यतेऽहं विधरणी इति,
तां त्वा घृतस्य धारया यजे संराधनीमहं—
स्वाहा ॥ १ ॥
sa yaḥ kāmayate mahatprāpnuyāmiti, udagayana āpūryamāṇapakśasya puṇyāhe dvādaśāhamupasadvratī bhūtvaudumbare kaṃse camase vā sarvauṣadhaṃ phalānīti saṃbhṛtya parisamuhya parilipyāgnimupasamādhāya paristīryāvṛtā”jyaṃ saṃskṛtya puṃsā nakśatreṇa manthaṃ saṃnīya juhoti ।
yāvanto devāstvayi jātavedastiryañco ghnanti puruṣasya kāmān,
tebhyo’haṃ bhāgadheyaṃ juhomi, te mā tṛptāḥ sarvaiḥ kāmaistarpayantu—svāhā |
yā tiraścī nipadyate’haṃ vidharaṇī iti,
tāṃ tvā ghṛtasya dhārayā yaje saṃrādhanīmahaṃ—
svāhā || 1 ||
1. He who wishes to attain greatness (should perform) on an auspicious day in a fortnight in which the moon waxes, and under a male constellation, during the northward march of the sun, (a sacrifice in the following manner): He should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads (i.e. live on milk), collect in a cup or bowl made of fig wood all herbs and their grains, sweep and plaster (the ground), purify the offerings in the prescribed manner, interpose the Mantha (paste made of those things), and offer oblations with the following Mantras: ‘O Fire, to all those gods under you, who spitefully frustrate men’s desires, I offer their share. May they, being satisfied, satisfy me with all objects of desire! Svāhā. To that all-procuring deity who turns out spiteful under your protection, thinking she is the support of all, I offer this stream of clarified butter. Svāhā.’
The results of meditation and rites have been stated. Of these, meditation is independent, but rites depend on both divine and human wealth. So for the sake of rites wealth must be acquired, and that in a harmless way. Hence for that purpose the ceremony called Mantha (paste) is being inculcated as a means to attaining greatness; for if greatness is attained, wealth follows as a matter of course. So the text says: He who wishes to attain greatness, i.e. wants to be great. The reference is to one who desires wealth and is qualified for the performance of rites. The time for the ceremony of Mantha which is sought to be enjoined, is being stated: During the northward march of the sun. This covers a large extent of time, so it is being restricted to a fortnight in which the moon waxes, i.e. the bright fortnight. That too is a long period; hence, on an auspicious or favourable day, i.e. one calculated to bring success to one’s undertaking. He should undertake for twelve days, counting back from the auspicious day on which he intends to perform the rites and including it, a vow connected with the Upasads. These are well-known rites in connection with the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice, in which the sacrificer has to drink cow’s milk according to the yield of an increasing and decreasing number of teats of the animals. But since those rites are not to be combined here, only the drinking of milk, without any restriction as to details, is meant.
Objection: If the compound in ‘Upasad-vrata’ is expounded so as to mean ‘the vow that consists of the Upasads,’ then all the details of procedure have to be observed. So why not observe them?
Reply: Because it is a ceremony according to the Smṛti. This ceremony of Mantha is enjoined by the Smṛti (and not the Śruti).
Objection: How can a ceremony that is enjoined by the Śruti be one in accordance with the Smṛti?
Reply: The Śruti here is merely repeating the Smṛti. Were it a Vedic ceremony, it would be related to the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice as a part is to a whole, and as such must conform to all the characteristics of the main sacrifice. But it is not a Vedic ceremony. For this reason it is also to be performed in the Āvasathya (household) fire; and the entire procedure is to be in accordance with the Smṛti. So the vow in question is that of living on milk.
Collect in a cup or bowl made of fig wood, in a vessel of this wood, whether shaped like a cup or a bowl—the option being with regard to the shape, and not the material, which must be fig wood—all herbs that are available and within one’s means: The ten cultivated species such as rice and barley, to be enumerated later on, must be included; there is no harm in having more. And their grains, as far as available and within one’s means. The word ‘iti’ is suggestive of the collection of all the materials, that is to say, including all other things that are to be collected. The order of procedure should be understood to be in accordance with the Gṛhya Sūtras. Sweep and plaster: These are cleaning the ground. Bring in the fire: It is implied that the sacrifice is to be performed in the Āvasathya fire, for the word is in the singular, and there is mention of the fire being brought in, which is only possible of a fire that already exists. Spread the Kuśa grass. Purify the offerings in the prescribed manner: Since the ceremony is in accordance with the Smṛti, the manner referred to is that of the ‘Sthālīpāka.’ Under a male constellation, one having a masculine name, associated with the auspicious, day. Interpose the Mantha: Having crushed all those herbs and grains, soaked them in curd, honey and clarified butter in that fig bowl, and rubbed them up with a rod, place the paste between himself and the fire. And offer oblations, with a fig ladle, in a part of the fire prescribed for this purpose, with the following Mantras, beginning with, ‘O Fire, to all those gods,’ etc.