व्यतिरेकः, तद्भावाभावित्वात्, न तु, उपलब्धिवत् ॥ ५४ ॥
vyatirekaḥ, tadbhāvābhāvitvāt, na tu, upalabdhivat || 54 ||
vyatirekaḥ—Separateness; tadbhāva-abhāvitvāt—for (consciousness) does not exist even when there is the body; na—not (so); tu—but; upalabdhivat—as in the case of cognition.
54. But not (so); (a Self) separate (from the body does exist), for (consciousness) does not exist even when there is the body (after death); as in the case of cognition.
This Sutra refutes the view expressed in the previous one. Consciousness cannot be a quality of the body, for we do not find consciousness in a body; after a person dies. So this consciousness is a quality of something different from and residing in the body. Again the Charvakas also accept that the cognizer is different from the thing cognized. If so, since we experience our body, we who cognize it must be different from our body; and this thing which cognizes this body of ours is the Self, and consciousness is a quality of this Self, rather its nature.